Shell & Tube

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Shell and Tube heat exchangers are the most commonly used type of heat exchangers in the process industry accounting to at least 60% of heat exchanger used. It can be designed to operate over a vibe range of temperatures and pressures using a wide range of materials widely used for most of the liquid-to-liquid and gas-to-liquid heat transfer applications (i.e. condensers, heaters, coolers, etc.)

GETS undertakes design, detailed engineering, manufacture, testing, certification and code stamping of Heat Exchangers to ASME Sec VIII Division 1, TEMA, API 660 & API 661.

Fixed Tube Heat Exchangers:

The Fixed Tubesheet design consists of two stationary tubesheets attached to the shell. The bundles of straight tubes are connected between the tubesheets and contain baffles to direct the flow around the tubes in order to generate the required heat transfer. A head assembly is attached to each tubesheet. Some of its salient features are:

  • Simplest and Cheapest of all Removable Bundle type Shell & Tube alternatives.
  • Heads can be removed and the tubes can be cleaned - removed easily.
  • Shell side leakage is minimized as this design is with flanged joints.
  • Designed to operate under vacuum

U Tube:

The U-tube design consists of straight length tubes bent into a U-shape with both ends terminating at the tubesheet. The tube bundle is fitted with supports or flow baffles. The tubesheet/tube bundle is placed in the shell and bolted between the head flange and body flange. A head assembly is required to direct the fluid into and out of the tube bundle. This configuration allows for the entire tube bundle to be removable. Salient features of these type of exchangers are :

  • Fixed Cost of U- Tube Heat Exchangers is the cheapest among all Floating Head type.
  • Requires only one tube sheet and tube bundle can be removed for cleaning & maintenance.
  • Bundle can expand or contract due to stress differentials and so equipment can be designed with expansion joints.
  • Numbers of joints are comparatively less.
  • Minimum clearance between outer tube limits and the inside of the shell.

Floating Tubesheet

A Floating Tubesheet design is similar to the Fixed Tubesheet design except one tubesheet is allowed to move axially within the shell while the other tubesheet is fixed. This configuration also allows for the tube bundle to be removable. Some of its salient features are:

  • High Pressure operations, allows unlimited thermal expansion
  • Easier to clean both sides of the tubes.
  • Have the largest bundle to shell clearance.
  • More Versatile than the fixed head and U-Tubes exchangers.
  • Can be used in processes where shell side & tube side fluids are dirty.

Kettle Reboilers

Kettle reboilers are very simple and reliable. These are reliable in that they can handle high vaporization of up to 80 percent and are easy to maintain. The liquid from the bottom of the tower flows through the tube bundle and exits as condensate. A restraining device (baffle) controls the liquid level over the bundle. Some of its salient features are:

  • This is used only for re-boilers to provide a large disengagement space in order to minimize shell side liquid carry over.
  • Entire tube bundle including floating head assembly can be removed
  • Tube Side fluid is cooled by boiling the fluid on the shell side.
  • Suited for processes where the heating medium is dirty.

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